Flowers

There are estimated to be around 100 plant species endemic to the area or found in very few other places, including rare orchids, bellflowers and irises. Huge clusters of these plants can be found in the Ovit, the Coruh and the Barhal valleys.

Orchids

An astonishing number of orchids can be found in the water meadows or in the damp grass. The region is home to many kinds of Dactylorhiza, some species of Orchis and the Cephalanthera Rubra.

Bellflowers

Two of the most beautiful bellflower (the campanula choruhensis, the campanula troegera) species can only grow under the unique climatic conditions of the Coruh Valley.

Irises

The Coruh region is famous for its many different species of Iris, which flourish both in the valleys and high mountains.

Detailed Info

Orchids

The Coruh basin provides the perfect growing conditions for orchids. An astonishing number of orchids can be found in the water meadows or in the damp grass next to the region’s innumerable streams and rivers. In all the wet flushes the common orchid you will see are the statuesque Dactylorhizas: Euxina, Flavscens, Osmanica, Umbrosa and Urvilleana. They are all similar red-purple spikes with upward-pointing leaves, often with spots, and flower around the same time in May-June, along with Bug Orchids, (Orchis coriophora) and dull, spiky Serapias. Red helleborine (Cephelanthera rubra) and the Pinewood Orchid (Orchis mascula ss pinetorum) grow in pinewoods. Dactylorhiza Osmanica and Dactylorhiza Umbrosa are widely distributed throughout the valleys and spangle numerous high meadows, especially the summer meadows above Yedigol, where the orchids make a magnificent display until late July. Near Yaylalar the Early-purple Orchid (Orchis mascula ssp. Pinetorum) and the Irish Marsh Orchid (Dactylorhiza euxina) are hidden amongst the bushes and pastures. The Red Helleborine (Cephalantera rubra) is not only found on the mountain slopes of Yaylalar, but also blooms on the Devedagı Pass, where Dactylorhiza flavescens grows in abundance. In addition, the Kılıckaya and Sırakonaklar valleys host the Dactylorhiza urvilleana, which blossom in the summer.

Bellflowers

Two of the most beautiful bellflower species can only grow under the unique climatic conditions of the Coruh Valley. The Campanula choruhensis with its delicate pale pink flowers blooms profusely on rocks just above Yesilyurt, a village near the town of Ispir. The hardly less lovely Campanula troegera also blooms in the narrow valleys of the region. The lush deep-purple bunches of the Milky Bellflower (Campanula lactiflora) border the rushing streams of the Sirakonaklar Valley. Many other bellflowers like the Pale Bellflower (C. Bononiensis) and the Campanula macrochlamys are to be found among the meadows and the precipices of the Coruh River basin. Damp-loving Primulas include the mop-headed pink Primula algida and P. auriculata, the Primrose in both yellow (P. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) and pink (subsp. megacalyx) and the Cowslip (P. elatior) with a purple variety.
 The obvious high-level shrubs are deep-green leaved, white-flowered Rhododendron caucasium.

Irises

The Coruh region is famous for its many different species of Iris which flourish both in the valleys and high mountains. Iris taochia is a yellow endemic found in the gorge near Ispir and Iris caucasica is a green-yellow miniature meadow Iris.
The purple-coloured Bearded Iris (Iris Germanica) adorns the fields. These enchanting purple or yellow flowers, which are named after the Greek goddess of the rainbow, can be found everywhere in the region of the Coruh. The rare species of Iris Sibirica grows on the slopes of the alpine meadows.

Other Plants


Spectacular Crimson Peony (Paeonia Mascula) covers a whole hillside on the road north from Ispir; the creamy Caucasian Peony (Paeonia Wittmanniana) is only known from a few sites in Turkey; one is in the Coruh area. 
Tiny snowmelt bulbs include pink Colchicum Szovitsii, deep brown Fritillaria Latifolia and deep blue Muscari spp., Gentiana Verna Pontica is the bright blue Snowmelt Gentian. Later, meadow bulbs include a yellow or red Tulip, (Tulipa Julia) and the purple Wild Gladiolus (Gladiolus Kotschyanus); Star of Bethlehem (Ornithogallum) comes in a variety of sizes and shapes, all with a green centre to the white flower. On the valley sides grow Capers (Cappari spinosa), the Yellow-Flowered Barberry (Berberis Crataegina), the dangerous Thorns-of-Christ (Paliurus Spina-christi), and Dog Roses (Rosa Canina). Next to the patches of lush green cultivated land there are delightful wildflowers. One very rare species of flower of outstanding beauty is Neotchichatchevia Isatidea. The deep purple bunches of flowers with their green stems and leaves rise out of loose stones on rocky fields beside the road. This region is host to many interesting species like the Sophora Root (Sophora alopecuroides) whose cream-coloured flowers grace the sandbanks of the riverbed. Nearby are the bright pink flowers of the Pelargonium Enlicherianum – also known as Geranium – which stand out against the grey rocks.

Practical Information


There are currently believed to be about 90 species endemic to the Coruh, but the climate and the terrain make scientific investigation difficult; new species are being discovered every year. The Alpine Garden Society’s ‘Bulbous Plants of Turkey and Iran’ is an illustrated guide to bulbs, and ‘The Most Beautiful Wildflowers of Turkey’ by Erdogan Tekin, is a non-specialist’s guide to 1000 species, with attractive photographs.
 There are few bilingual Turkish botanic guides but some foreign firms run botanic tours of the area.

FamilyPlant Name
AceraceaeAcer cappadocicum var. stenocarpum
Acer divergens Pax var. divergens
Acer trautvetteri
AlismataceaeAlisma plantago-aquatica
AnacardiaceaeCotinus coggyria Scop.
Rhus coriaria
ApiaceaeBunium microcarpum (Boiss.) Freyn.subsp.bourgeri (Boiss.) Hedge& Lamond
Bupleurum brachiatum
Bupleurum sichistosum
Carum meifolium (Bieb.)Boiss.
Chaerophyllum aureum
Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl.
Scandix iberica
Turgenia latifolia
Zosima absinthifolia
ApocynaceaeVinca herbacea
Vincetoxicum fuscatum subsp. fuscatum
Vincetoxicum tmoleum
AraceaeEminium sp.
AsclepiadaceaeCynanchum acutum L.subsp.acutum
AsteraceaeAchillea coarctata
Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium
Antennara dioica(L.)Gaertner
Anthemis rigida
Anthemis tinctoria L.var.pallida DC.
Anthemis tinctoria L.var. tinctoria
Aster alpinus L.
Centaurea carduiformis subsp. orientalis
Centaurea cheiranthifolia Willd.var. cheiranthifolia
Centaurea polypodiifolia var. polypodiifolia
Centaurea pseudascabiosa Boiss. &Buhse subsp. pseudascabiosa
Centaurea pulcherrima subsp. freynii
Centaurea rhizantha
Centaurea simplicicaulis Bois. &Huet.
Centaurea straminocephala
Centaurea triumfettii All
Chardinia orientalis
Cirsium echinus
Cirsium davisianum
Cirsium macrobotrys (C.Koch.)Boiss.
Cirsium lappaceum (Bieb.)Fisher subsp. tenuilobum(C.Koch.)Davis&Parris
Cirsium pseudopersonata Boiss. &Ball.subsp.pseudopersonata
Cnicus benedictus var. kotschyi
Erigeron caucasicus Stev.subsp.venustus (Batsh.)Grierson
Erigeron acer L. subsp. pynotrichus(Vierh.)Grierson
Helichrysum arenarium subsp. aucheri
Helichrysum plicatum subsp. plicatum
Helicrhrysum plicatum (L.)moench subsp.ercincanicum Davis & Kupicha
Inula helenium
Jurinella moschus subsp. moschus
Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.
Scorzonera cana (C.A.Meyer)Hoffm.var.radicosa (Boiss.) var.alpina (Boiss.)Chamberl.
Scorzonera cana (C.A.Meyer) Hoffm.var.radicosa (Boiss.)var.alpina (Boiss.) Chamberlain
Senecio integriflorus (L.) Clairv.subsp.karsianus Matthews
Senecio vernalis
Picris hieracioides L.
Pilosella hoppeana (Schultes)C.H. & F.W.Schultz. subsp.pilisquama (NP.)Sell&West.
Pilosella maschukensis (Litw. & Zahn.)Sojak
Pilosella verruculata(Link) Sojak
Tanacetum argenteum subsp. canum var. canum
Tanacetum armenum
Tanacetum balsamita L.subsp. balsamitoides(Schultz Bip.) Grierson
Tanacetum chiliophyllum var. chiliophyllum
Tanacetum macrophyllum
Tanacetum parthenium
Taraxacum crepidiforme DC.subsp. crepidiforme
Telekia speciosa (Shreber) Baumg.
Tragopogon aureus
Taragopogon fibrosus Freyn & Sint ex Freyn
Tripleurospermum oreades var. oreades
Tripleurospermum melanolepis (Bois. &Bushe) Pebed.
Tussilago farfara
Uetchritzia armena
BerberidaceaeBerberis vulgaris L.
BetulaceaeAlnus glutinosa subsp. glutinosa
BoraginacaeAlkanna cordifolia
Anchusa azurea var. azurea
Anchusa leptophylla Roemer&Schlutes subsp. leptophylla
Arnebia pulchra
Cerinthe glabra
Cynoglossum montanum
Echium vulgare
Moltkia coerulea (Willd.) Lehm.
Myosotis strıcta link ex Schmites
Myosotis alpestris F.W.Schmidt subsp.alpestris
Myosotis arvensis (L.)Hill subsp.arvensis
Nonea anchusoides Boiss. & Buhse
Nonea intermedia Ledeb.
Nonea pulla (L.)DC.subsp. scabrispuamata A.Baytop
Onosma tauricum Palas ex Willd.var. tauricum
Onosma tenuiflorum
Paracaryum cristatum subsp. cristatum
Rindera lanata var. canescens
Solenanthus circinnatus
Symphytum asperum var. asperum
Symphytum armeniacum Bucknall
BrassicaceaeAethionema arabicum
Aethionema speciosum Boiss. & Huet
Alyssoides utriculata
Alyssum artvinense
Alyssum ochroleucum Boiss. & Huet.
Alyssum praecox Boiss. & Bal. Var. praecox
Alyssum murale Waldst. & Kit. var. alpinum
Arabis caucasica subsp. caucasica
Arabis sagittata (Bertol.) DC.
Arabis nova Vill.
Bunias orientalis
Camelina rumelica Vell
Capsella bursa–pastoris (L.) Medik.
Cardamine impatiens L.var. impatiens
Cardamine raphanifolia subsp. acris
Cardamine tenera
Cochlearia sintenisii
Coluteacarpus vesicaria subsp. vesicaria
Conringia planisiliqua
Crambe orientalis L. var. orientalis
Descurriana sophia (L.)Webb. ex Pranthl.
Draba bruniifolia subsp. bruniifolia
Draba bruniifolia Stev.subsp. americana Coode & Cullen
Draba hispida
Draba rigida var. bryoides
Erysimum leucanthemum (Steph.)Fedtsch.
Erysimum gelidum Bunge
Erysimum leptophyllum (Bieb.)Andrz.
Hesperis matronalis subsp. woronovi
Lepidium sativum L. subsp. sativum
Murbeckiella huetii
Neotchichatchevia isatidea
Ricotia sp.
Sobolewskia clavata
Sterigmostemum incanum Bieb.
Turritis glabra
CampanulaceaeAsyneuma virgatum (Labill)Bornm.subsp. virgatum
Campanula seraglio
Campanula aucheri
Campanula betulifolia
Campanula choruhensis
Campanula latiloba
Campanula macrochlamys
Campanula olympica
Campanula saxonorum
Campanula stevenii Bieb.subsp. stevenii
Campanula troegerae
Campanula tridendata Schreber
CapparaceaeCapparis spinosa subsp. spinosa
Capparıs ovata Desf.var.herbacea (Willd.)Zoh.
CaprifoliaceaeLonicera caucasica subsp. caucasica
Sambucus ebulus
Viburnum orientale
CaryophyllaceaeCerastium armeniacum Gren
Cerastium chloriflorum Fisch. & Mey.
Cerastium fragellimum Boiss.
Cerastium dahuricum
Dianthus calocephalus Boiss.
Cerastium gnaphalodes
Dianthus carmelitarum
Dianthus orientalis
Gypsophila elegans Bieb.
Gypsophila glandulosa
Gypsophila perfoliata
Minuartia circassica
Minuartia micrantha
Minuartia grandulosa (Boiss. & Huet) Bornm.
Minuartia verna (L.) Hiern.
Minuartia erythrocephala (Boiss.) Hand. var. erythrocephala
Minuartıa corymbulosa (Boiss. &Bal.)McNeil var. corymbulosa
Petrorhagia saxifraga
Saponaria prostrata subsp. calvertii
Silene alba (Miller) Krause subsp.divaricata (Reichb) Walthus
Silene compacta
Silene dianthoides Pers.
Silene dichotoma Ehrh.subsp.dichotoma
Silene laxa Boiss. & katschy
Silene marschallii
Silene spergulifolia (Dest.) Bieb.
Silene vulgaris subsp. commutata
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Gareke var. vulgaris
Vaccaria pyramidata Medik. var. grandiflora(Fish ex DC.)Gullen
CelastraceaeEuonymus latifolius (L.) Miller subsp.latifolius
ChenopodiaceaeBeta lomatogona
CistaceaeHelianthemum canum(L.)Baumgl
Helianthemum nummularium (L.)Miller,subsp.tomentosum (Scop.)Schintz &Amanus
ConvolvulaceaeConvolvulus arvensis
Convolvulus cantabrica
Convolvulus pseudoscammonia
CornaceaeCornus mas. L.
Cornus sanguinea L. subsp.australis (J.A.Meyer)Jav.
CorylaceaeCorylus avellana var. pontica
Corylus maxima Miller
Ostrya carpinifolia
CrassulaceaeSedum album
Sedum gracile C.A.Meyer
Sedum hispanicum var. hispanicum
Sedum pallidum var. pallidum
Sedum pilosum Bieb.
Sedum sempervivoides
Sedum spurium
Sedum telephium
Sempervivum armenum
Sempervivum artvinense
CucurbitaceaeBryonia aspera
CuscutaceaeCuscuta europea L.
CupressaceaeJuniperus oblonga
Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica
Juniperus excelsa
Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus
Juniperus communis L. subsp. nana Syme
Juniperus foetidissima Willd.
DipsacaceaeKnautia involucrata
EbenaceaeDiospyros lotus
ElaeagnaceaeEleagnus angustifolia L.
Hippophae rhamnoides L.
EphedraceaeEphedra major
EquisetaceaeEquisetum hyemale L.
Equisetum ramosissimum Desf.
EricaceaeRhododendron caucasicum
Rhododendron luteum
Vaccinium myrtillus
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia virgata Waldst. Kit.
FabaceaeAnthyllis vulneraria L.subsp.boissieri (Sag.)Bornm.
Astragalus ericephalus Willd. subsp.eriocephalus
Astragalus cancellatus
Astragalus atrocarpus Chamb. & Matthews
Astragalus fumosus Boiss.
Astragalus bicolor Lam.
Astragalus cylindraceus DC.
Astragalus czorochensis Charadze
Astragalus campylosema Boiss. subsp.campylosema
Astragalus kitianus
Astragalus fragrans
Astragalus galegiformis
Astragalus macrocephalus subsp. finitimus
Chamaecytisus hirsutus
Chesneya elegans Fomin
Cicer anatolicum Alef.
Colutea armena Boiss. & Huet.
Coronilla orientalis var. orientalis
Coronilla varia subsp. varia
Genista aucheri
Genista sessilifolia
Genista tinctoria
Hedysarum nitidum
Hedysarum varium Willd.
Hedysarum huetii Boiss.
Hedysarum cappadocicum Boiss.
Hedysarum elegans Boiss. &Huet.
Lathyrus laxiflorus subsp. laxiflorus
Lathyrus rotundifolius
Lathyrus rotundifolius subsp. miniatus
Lotus corniculatus L.var. tenuiflorus L.
Lotus corniculatus L.var. alpinus Ser.
Medicago x varia
Medicago lupulina L.
Melilotus officinalis
Onobrychis cornuta (L.) Desv.
Onobrychis oxyodonta Boiss. var. oxyodonta
Onobrychis radiata
Pisum sativum subsp. elatius var. elatius
Sophora alopecuriodes var. alopecuroides
Trifolium ambiigum Bieb.
Trifolium arvense var. arvense
Trıfolıum pratense L.var.pratense
Trifolium trichocephalum Bieb.
Trigonella arcuata C.A.Meyer
Vicia alpestris subsp. hypoleuca
Vicia balansae
Vicia cassubica
Vicia cracca subsp. tenuifolia
Vicia cracca L. subsp. cracca
Vicia cracca L. subsp.tenophyllus Vel.
Vicia villosa Roth.subsp.villosa
Vicia erikensis Demirkuş ex Erik
Vicia erzurimica
FagaceaeQuercus hartwissiana
Quercus infectoria subsp. infectoria
Quercus macranthera Fisch. & Mey. Ex Hoben. Subsp. syspirensis 8C.Koch)Menitsky
Quercus petraea
Quercus petraea subsp. iberica
GentianaceaeGentiana asclepiadea
Swertia iberica
GeraniaceaeGeranium cinereum subsp. lazicum
Geranium macrostylum
Geranium molle subsp. molle
Geranium platypetalum
Geranium robertianum
Geranium sylvaticum
Pelargonıum endlicherianum Fenzl.
GlobulariaceaeGlobularia
Globularia orientalis
GrossulariaceaeRibes biebersteinii
Ribes orientale
HypericaceaeHypericum linaroides Bosse
Hypericum lydium Boiss.
Hypericum orientale
Hypericum perforatum
Hypericum tetrapterum
IridaceaeCrocus vallicola Herbert
Gladiolus kotschyanus Boiss.
Iris caucasica subsp. caucasica
Iris taochia
JuglandaceaeJuglans regia L.
LamiaceaeMarrubium globosum subsp. globosum
Acinos rotundifolius
Ajuga chamaepitys subsp. chia
Ajuga orientalis
Ajuga reptans
Ballota nigra subsp. nigra
Ballota rotundifolia
Eremostachys molucelloides
Lallemantia iberica
Lallemantia peltata (L.)Fisch. & Mey.
Lamium album
Lamium tomentosum Willd.var. tomentosum
Lamium galactophyllum Boiss. & Reuter
Lamium ponticum
Lamium purpureum var. purpureum
Mentha longipetala (L.)Hudson subsp.longifolia
Mentha longifolia (L.)Hudson subsp.typhoides(Briq.)Harley var.typhoides
Nepeta italica
Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda
Phlomis armeniaca
Salvia aethiopis
Salvia huberi Hedge
Salvia multicaulis
Salvia pinnata L.
Salvia rosifolia
Salvia sclarea
Salvia verticillata subsp. verticillata
Salvia virgata
Salvia viridis
Salvia xanthocheila
Satureja hortensis L.
Scutellaria orientalis subsp. orientalis
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. tortumensis
Scutellaria uzunderensis
Stachys annua(L.)subsp. annua var. annua
Stachys iberica Bieb.subsp.iberica var. iberica
Stachys lavandulifolia var. lavandulifolia
Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl.var. barachyodon Boiss.
Stachys macrantha
Teucrium chamaedrys
Teucrium chamaedrys subsp. syspirense
Teucrium orientale var. orientale
Teucrium ozturkii
Teucrium polium
Thymus praecox Opiz subsp. grossheimi(Ronniger) Jalas var. grossheimi
Thymus sp.
Wiedemannia multifida
Ziziphora clinopodioides
LiliacaeaTulipa julia
Allium scorodoprasum subsp. rotundum
Allium zebdanense
Allium sosnowskyanum Miscz.
Bellevalia trifoliata
Colchicum speciosum
Colchicum szovitsii
Fritillaria latifolia
Gagea glacialis
Gagea chanae Grossh.
Muscari armeniacum Leichtlin ex Baker
Muscari tenuiflorum
Ornithogalum
Ornithogalum arcuatum
Ornithogalum narbonense
Ornithogalum sp.
Polygonatum orientale
Scilla siberica subsp. armena
Tulipa julia
LinaceaeLinum catharticum L.
Linum mucronatum
Linum mucronatum subsp. armenum
Linum nervosum Waldst. &Kit.
Linum tenuifolium
LyhtraceaeLythrum salicaria L.
MalvaceaeAlcea calvertii
Malva neglecta Wallr
MoraceaeFicus carica
MorinaceaeMorina persica
OleaceaeFraxinus angustifolia subsp. oxycarpa
Jasminum fruticans
OrchidaceaeCephalanthera rubra
Dactylorhiza euxina
Dactylorhiza flavescens
Dactylorhiza osmanica
Dactylorhiza umbrosa
Dactylorhiza urvilleana
Ophrys oestrifera Bieb.subsp. oestrifera
Orchis coriophora
Orchis mascula subsp. pinetorum
Orchis tridentata Scop.
Platanthera bifolia (L.) L. C. M.
Platanthera chlorantha (Custer)Reichb.
OnagraceaeEpilobium confusum Hausskn.
OrobanchaceaeOrobanche anatolica
Orobanche rechingeri
PaeoniaceaePaeonia mascula subsp. arietine
PapaveraceaePapaver fugax Poiret var. fugax
Papaver lateritium
Papaver orientale L. var. parviflora Busch.
Glaucum grandiflorum Boiss. & Huet var. grandiflorum
PinaceaeAbies nordmanniana
Picea orientalis
Pinus sylvestris
PlantaginaceaePlantago atrata
Plantago lanceolata L.
Plantago matirima L.
Plantago media L.
PlumbaginaceaeAcantholimon sp.
PoaceaePhleum alpinum
Bromus tomentellus Boiss.
Festuca wowonowii Hackel subsp. caucasica (St.–Yves)Markgr–Dannenb.
Festuca chalcophaea V.Krecz. & Bobrov subsp.chalcophaea
Poa trivalis L.
Poa longifolia Trin.
Poa bulbosa L. var. vivipara
Sesleria phleoides Steven ex Roemer & Schultes
Setaria viridis (L.) P.Beauv.
PolygalaceaePolygala major
Polygala vulgaris
Polygala supina Schreb.
Polygala transcaucasica Tamamschian
Polygala alpestris Reichb.
PolygonaceaePolygonum alpinum
Polygonum bistorta subsp. carneum
Polygonum dumetorum L.
Rumex acetocella
Rumex alpinus
Rumex horizontalis
Rumex ponticus
Rumex tuberosum subsp. horizontalis
PrimulaceaeAndrosace albana
Androsace armeniaca var. armeniaca
Androsace armeniaca Duby var.macrantha (Bois. &Huet.) Martelli
Androsace maxima
Cyclamen coum var. caucasicum
Lysimachia vulgaris L.
Primula algida Adams.
Primula auriculata Lam.
Primula elatior subsp. pallasi
Primula longipes Freyn & Sint
Primula veris subsp. columnae
Primula veris L.subsp. macrocalyx (Bunge)Lüdi
PteridophytaAsplenium septentrionale
Asplenium trichomanes
Ceterach officinarum
Cheilanthes marantae
Cheilanthes persica
PunicaceaePunica granatum
RanunculaceaeAnemone albana Stev.
Anemone narcissiflora subsp. narcissiflora
Aqualegia olympica
Caltha polypetala
Clematis orientalis L.
Consolida orientalis (Gay) Schröd
Nigella segetalis
Nigella arvensis L.
Ranunculus arvensis
Ranunculus brachylobus Boiss. & Hoh. Subsp. brachylobus
Ranunculus caucasicus subsp. subleiocarpus
Ranunculus grandiflorus
Ranunculus kotschyi
Ranunculus repens L.
Thalictrum minus var. majus
ResedaceaeReseda lutea L.var lutea
RhamnaceaePaliurus spina–cristi Miller
Rhamnus pallasii
Zizyphus jujuba
RosaceaeAlchemilla caucasica Buser
Alchemilla stricta Rothm.
Amelanchier rotundifolia subsp. rotundifolia
Armeniaca vulgaris
Aruncus vulgaris
Cerasus angustifolia
Cerasus avium (L.) Moench
Cerasus vulgaris Miller
Cotoneaster nummularia
Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis
Crataegus monogyna
Cydonia oblonga Miller
Filipendula ulmaria
Fragaria vesca
Fragaria viridis
Geum coccineum
Geum urbanum L.
Mespilus germanica
Persica vulgaris Miller
Potentilla erecta
Potentilla geranoides Wiild.
Potentilla recta
Potentilla crantzii (Crantz.)G.Beck ex Fritsch var.crantzii
Prunus divaricata subsp. divaricata
Pyrus elaeagnifolia subsp. kotschyana
Pyrus salicifolia Palas var. salicifolia
Rosa canina
Rosa foetida
Rosa pimpinellifolia
Rubus caucasicus
Rubus caesicus L.
Rubus idaeus
Sanguisorba minor subsp. lasiocarpa
Sibbaldia parviflora var. parviflora
Sorbus aucuparia
Sorbus umbellata var. cretica
RubiaceaeAsperula orientalis
Asperula glomerata (Bieb.) Griseb.subsp.glomerata
Asperula virgata Hub.–Mor.ex Ehrend &Schönb.–Ten.
Asperula pestalozzae Boiss.
Asperula woronowii Krecz.
Cruciata laevipes
Cruciata taurica (Palas ex Willd.)Ehrend.
Galium articulatım Lam.
Galium basalticum
Galium tortumense
Galium humifusum Bieb.
RutaceaeHaplophyllum armenum
SalicaceaePopulus tremula
Salix alba
Salix triandra L.subsp.bornmuelleri L.
Salix babylonica L.
SaxifragaceaeSaxifraga paniculata subsp. cartileginea
Saxifraga rotundifolia
Saxifraga paniculata miller subsp. paniculata
ScrophulariaceaeLinaria armaniaca Chav.
Linaria chalepensis
Linaria genistifolia subsp. artvinense
Linaria genistifolia (L.)Miller subsp. linifolia (Boiss.)Davis
Linaria chalepensis
Linaria corifolia Dest.
Melampyrum arvense var. arvense
Pedicularis caucasica
Pedicularis comosa L. var. sibthorpii (Boiss.)Boiss.
Pedicularis condensata
Pedicularis wilhelmsiana
Rhinanthus angustifolius subsp. grandiflorus
Rhynchocorys elephas subsp. elephas
Rhynchocorys stricta
Scrophularia chrysantha
Scrophularia ilwensis C.Koch.
Scrophularia kotschyana
Symphytum aspera
Verbascum flavidum (Boiss.)Freyn & Bornm.
Verbascum asreruloides Hub.–Mor.
Veronica armena Boiss.
Veronica armenum subsp. tempskyana
Veronica beggabunga L. subsp. abscandita M.A.F.
Veronica gentianoides Vahl. subsp. gentianoides
Veronica multifida
Veronica oltensis Woron.
Veronica pectinata
Veronica peduncularis
SolanaceaeHyoscyamus niger
Physalis alkekengi
TamaricaceaeMyricaria germanica
Tamarix symrensis Bunge
ThymelaeaceaeDaphne glomerata Lam.
TiliaceaeTilia rubra DC: subsp.caucasica (Rpr.)V.Engler
UlmaceaeCeltis glabrata
UrticaceaeParietaria judaica
Urtica dioica L.
ValeranaceaeCentranthus longiflorus subsp. longiflorus
Valeriana alliariifolia
ViolaceaeViola altaica
Viola arvensis
Viola gracilis Sibth.& Sm.
Viola occulta Lehm.
Viola sieheana
VitaceaeVitis sylvestris
ZygophyllaceaePeganum harmala

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